Journal Name: Japanese Studies: September 2004, Vol. 24, No. 2
ISSN: 1037-1397 (Paper), 1469-9338 (Online)
Reflections on the relationship with Japan (pp159-168)
Peter Drysdale (Australian National University)
This paper considers the evolving Australia-Japan bilateral relationship. Key issues discussed include the 'drift' and 'neglect' in bilateral relations in the 1990s, the current state of the economic relationship, the proliferation of Free Trade Agreements and future directions. A central theme is the importance of bilateral ties for both countries and that shared visions such as building regional cooperation through APEC might be compromised by the proposed Free Trade Agreement between Australia and the United States.
Diplomatic reflections: an Australian view from Tokyo (pp169-175)
Geoff Miller (NSW President Australian Institute of International Affairs)
In the second half of the 1980s, Japan was at the height of its economic power, a 'rich nation' again, with the 'bubble' yet to burst. Trade issues loomed large in the Australia-Japan relationship, which at that time also included a developing security dialogue, investment schemes of different kinds, proposals for managed migration of elderly Japanese to Australia and MITI's proposal for a 'Multi-Function Polis' (MFP)--all made more touchy in Australia by a perceived wave of Japanese property acquisitions. As Japan seeks to finally emerge from its post-bubble slump, and to lay the foundations to cope with its declining population, Australia and Japan face three common issues of great concern--the role of Free Trade Agreements in global trade liberalisation; security matters, including terrorism, North Korea and Japan's 'peace constitution'; and relations with a more radical and active United States.
Diplomatic reflections: a Japanese view from Canberra (pp177-179)
Masaji Takahashi (Chairman Interchange Association)
This paper is a diplomatic reflection based on a long connection with Australia and Australians and a posting to Canberra as Japanese ambassador (1998-2001). Key issues that have caused tension in the relationship and the process towards the development of mature bilateral relations are discussed. Finally, the paper argues that the bilateral relationship will continue to develop and prosper and that this is in the interests of both countries.
Contesting the 'will of the people': Australia and constitutional reform in occupied Japan (pp181-200)
Christine De Matos (University of Western Sydney)
While the role of the United States in the development of Japan's post-war constitution is well documented, less is known of the role of other Allied nations. This article seeks to narrate the role of Australia in this process, giving particular focus to the debate over provisions to provide an avenue for popular expression of approval of the constitution via referendum and/or a Diet review process. This process was approved as an official Far Eastern Commission (FEC) policy, known as the 'Provision for Review'. The debate over this issue, and other elements of the constitutional replacement process, help illuminate the workings of the FEC, the relationship and conflict between the various Allied powers over policy and practice, the role of US unilateralism in the Allied control bodies, and the nuances of Australian policy towards Occupied Japan. Additionally and importantly, it demonstrates the appropriation of idealistic terms, especially the expression of the 'will of the people', by both sides of the Allied constitutional debate in order to further their own post-war agendas.
Negotiating the basic treaty between Australia and Japan, 1973-1976
Arthur Stockwin (Nissan Institute University Oxford)
The argument of this article is that the Basic Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation between Australia and Japan (signed in 1976) and the negotiating process that led up to its signing deserve closer attention than they have generally been accorded. Historically, the negotiations represent an important stage in a developing relationship and, particularly at government-to-government level, contributed to a significant learning process on both sides. The very fact that the two sides started from different premises and that each was forced to confront a contrasting set of assumptions and demands on the part of the other led to a painful but thorough re-examination of basic assumptions. Even though the treaty at the time of its signature did not prescribe substantially different standards of conduct from those obtaining previously, it formalised and provided a stable framework for a continuing relationship, especially in matters relating to investment, as well as entry and stay. The fact that negotiations were begun under Whitlam and concluded under Fraser lent a bipartisan edge to the Australian commitment, while in Japan continuity appears to be assured by the fact that the party in power on its own in 1976 is still in power, as the leading party of a coalition government, in 2004.
The controversy over Japanese investment in Australia, 1987-1991: context and lessons (pp215-231)
Chris Pokarier (Waseda University)
The intense controversy over Japanese investment in Australia in the late 1980s continues to attract academic attention as a significant episode in Australia-Japan relations. This paper addresses two limitations of the existing literature. Firstly, it situates the controversy in the political economy of foreign investment policy liberalisation. This is important to an understanding of to what degree it was fundamentally a Japan-related or a foreign investment-related issue. How it became both provides insights into the dynamics of Australia-Japan relations in that era. Secondly, why the Australian government reaffirmed its commitment to liberal non-discriminatory policy in the face of popular disquiet is examined directly. This complements the existing rich literature on the negative reactions to Japanese investment and may help to provide a fuller picture of the domestic sources of stability in Australia-Japan relations in that period. It also highlights the historical magnitude of the Howard government's recent apparent abrogation of the non-discriminatory principle in foreign investment policy with the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement of February 2004 and the questions so raised about the Australia-Japan bilateral relationship.
Japan and East Timor: implications for the Australia-Japan relationship (pp233-246)
David Walton (University of Western Sydney)
The paper examines the Japanese position on East Timor and highlights tension in bilateral relations between Australia and Japan on East Timor during the year 1999. The sources of tension were over leadership, appropriate policy towards Indonesia and the style of diplomacy conducted by Australia. In many respects the tension over East Timor shook complacency in bilateral relations. By January 2001 tension was resolved and bilateral ties have been strengthened in the areas of security and regional cooperation. What does this episode reveal about the bilateral relationship? Quite clearly, and despite the depth of networks that have been established over the decades, there was insufficient consultation on East Timor. In part, the extraordinary events that unfolded after the results of the ballot in East Timor were announced on 4 September 1999 and Australia's leadership role in the International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) can explain the lack of consultation. Also, a drift in relations that had been evident for several years was a significant factor. Finally, the paper argues that despite the substantial improvement in bilateral relations, policy towards Indonesia will remain a potential source of friction between the two countries.
The beginnings of the multiculturalization of Japanese immigrants to Australia: Japanese community organizations and the policy interface (pp247-261)
Yoshikazu Shiobara (University of Sydney)
Interviews with leaders of Japan Clubs and other organizations of Japanese permanent residents in major Australian cities reveal that the activities of these organizations have been involved with Australian multicultural public policies since the 1990s. This 'multiculturalization' has emerged from the leaders' recognition of the need to provide educational opportunities for Japanese language and culture for the second generation, and culturally appropriate social welfare services for aged Japanese immigrants. Through these activities, leaders of Japanese community organizations refer to other ethnic groups and redefine themselves as members of Australian multicultural society. At the same time, they also recognize and reconstruct their own Japaneseness in the context of Australia. The activities of these organizations can be seen as a first step in the change from 'Japanese in Australia' to the hyphenated 'Japanese-Australian'.
(This journal is available online at: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10371397.asp)
Posted with permission from the publisher.