Journal Name: Transcultural Management Review Vol.1 September 2004
Cross-Cultural / Transcultural Management:
Theoretical Studies on Its Strategic Approach (pp5-15)
Toshikazu TAKAHASHI (Ph.D. Candidate, Rikkyo University Graduate School of Economics)
This paper argues that management capability for cross-cultural interaction, including the influence of the company on different cultures is the most crucial management capability to gain a competitive advantage. The theoretical problem of Cross-Cultural/Transcultural Management is that conventional research limits the discussion of the management of influence of the different cultures on the company, and neglects the discussion of the management of the influence of the company on different cultures. This paper proves that management capabilities in cross-cultural interaction that attach importance to the adaptability to environment serve as a source of competitive advantage, by using the concept of "Dynamic Capabilities".
Keywords: competitive strategy, dynamic capabilities, cross-cultural interaction, influence of different culture on the company, influence of the company on different cultures
Transcultural Management: Past, Present and Future (pp16-33)
Professor Emiko MAGOSHI (College of Public and Business Administration, Obirin University)
Business is becoming increasingly global and cross-cultural encounter has become common where people with different cultural backgrounds are working together in multinational settings. Against this backdrop, this paper traces the past, looks at the present and envisions the future of the academic field of transcultural management. It introduces some of the leading studies of the past and a new research the author undertook which shows the future directions of the field. It also touches upon the authorís recent findings that the Anglo-Saxon management style does not necessarily fit the mentality of Japanese employees. In this light, the author attempts to establish a theoretical framework based on the two dimensions of global management, namely, universal practice and cultural relativity.
Keywords: transcultural management, mindware, cultural relativity, universally applicable management, global management of Japanese origin
An Approach to Cross-Cultural Management:
Understanding Islamic Management and its significance (pp34-47)
Hideko SAKURAI (Associate Professor, Faculty of Community Development, Sakushin-Gakuin University)
The purpose of this paper is to examine Islamic Management for better understanding the trend and meaning of cross-cultural management. The focal points: 1) The significance and difficulties in understanding the differing cultures, 2) Misunderstanding and unfavorable response of managers to ritual custom in Islam with special reference to Salat and Hijab, 3) An explanation of Islamic basic creed such as Tawhid, Shariah, and Ummah, 4) Islamic law on economics and management, and 5) The significance of understanding Islamic management in light of present globalism.
Keywords: understanding differing culture, Islam, pluralistic management, public interest, global economy
Trends in the Globalization of the Japanese Electrical Industry and Some Thoughts Based on 40 Years of Practical Experience (pp48-66)
Tadao SUMI (Executive Advisor, Shibaura Mechatronics Corporation and Visiting Professor, Center for Strategic Development of Science and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
Japanese Electrical Industry businesses have developed from the domestic market to global markets into 4 stages over the past 40 years. Those are divided into international, multinational, global and transnational. Practical procedures for expanding global business in these areas were export, international procurement, overseas sales and manufacturing company establishment, global collaboration and global company. The paper also notes important key issues for global business expansion based the authorís own experiences over 40 years.
Keywords: globalization for the Japanese electrical industry, international, multinational, global, solution business
AGC Groupís Globalization and Cross-Fertilization (pp67-76)
Masayuki KAMIYA (Executive Director, Deputy General Manager, Corporate Planning, Asahi Glass Company, Ltd.)
In its endeavors towards internationalization, Asahi Glass Company, Ltd. shifted from Japan-centered management to regional management and has now reached the stage of global management. The company has reformed the structure of the Board of Directors, positioning it as a body that approves basic policies and oversees the management of the AGC group. The number of directors was reduced and independent directors were appointed. For the company, its greatest asset is its more than 50,000 employees throughout the world. Diverse cultures may potentially lead to conflict but they can also be the source of creative energy when the corporate vision is shared by all the members of the company. This can be explained by using the analogy of cross-fertilization theory. By accepting different DNA, an entity can survive environmental changes. This holds true for business management. One of Asahiís companies is now headquartered in Belgium and this is a good example of the dynamic changes in the company.
Keywords: reforming corporate governance, cross-culture and diverse human resources, cross-fertilization, DNA, adjusting to environments, diversity, evolution
Transcultural Management for Japanese Companies
Developing and Sharing New Corporate Values and Vision (pp77-86)
Hiroo INOUE (Special Adviser, Kao Corporation)
Surely, one of the Japanese global competitive edge is the ability "to develop value added products". However, at the same time, this is a double edge sword, which generates strong team work spirit as an important core value but also inward-looking behavior in this vigorous global business community. In order to survive this surging globalization, Japanese corporations must develop a much more outward-looking mentality and behavior including communication capability. The management concepts and systems based on the well-balanced paradox has to be developed not as negative double edges but as positive competitive edges. This balance has to be agilely and delicately executed depending on the changes of the market and consumer situation. And another key for trans cultural management is "When in Rome, share with Romans" rather than "When you in Rome, do as Romans do."
Keywords: gap of execution power for changes, new definition of "team work", when in Rome, share with Romans, paradox balance management, transcultural communication power
Reform of Japanese-Style Corporate Management In the Context of Structural Reform (pp87-98)
Takao KOMINE (Hosei Graduate School of Policy Science)
The whole Japanese economic society is under structural change. Japanese-style corporate management is also changing rapidly. Previous Japanese-style management had various characteristics such as market share oriented strategy, bottom-up decision making, cross stock holding and long-term procurement relationship. From the viewpoint of corporate governance, Japanese companies maintained Japanese style governance in which employees, main bank and government authorities played important roles. These elements are changing now. Especially, the recent information technology revolution is changing Japanese style management through reducing search costs and enhancing close informational transactions between top management and the business front line.
Keywords: structural reform, Japanese style corporate management, complementarity, corporate governance, information technology revolution