Journal Name: Transcultural Management Review Vol.3 November 2006
In Search of the Third Wisdom (pp3-12)
Fumikatsu TOKIWA (Former Chairman, Kao Corporation)
The 20th century saw the rise of mankind and the establishment of an unprecedentedly affluent society based on the Western wisdom. On the other hand, it triggered the onset of social and environmental problems of diverse complexity. Wisdom does not necessarily come from the West. The East (the Orient) is also endowed with a heritage of wisdom equally rich or even richer than that in the West. The Yi-King (the Book of Changes) in China preaches that changes are the essence of everything and the way to view things resides in changes and in relation with the whole. Also the Vedas (the ancient scripture) in India also explains that all things are organically connected to create a system in the vast universe, the great nature and humankind. The wisdom of the West tries to understand things by breaking things up into pieces and analyzing them while that of the East uses a more comprehensive and holistic approach. In the 21st century world, what wisdom should we have in our life is an extremely critical matter for a century, a society and a company. In business and management, we have so far relied largely on Western wisdom. From now on, however, we should direct our attention to Eastern wisdom and seek the third wisdom that is the fusion of the Western and Eastern wisdom. By so doing the author believes we will be able to contribute to the global development of mankind.
Keywords: Wisdom of the West, Wisdom of the East, the Third Wisdom, the philosophy of the Yi-King, concept of "heterogeneity", diversity
Emergence of Affuluent - Discourse Analysis on Consumption of New Affluent- (pp13-28)
Hiroshi TANAKA (Professor, Hosei University)
Junko KIMURA (Associate Professor, Hosei University)
Despite all the interest surrounding affuluent, little research has been conducted to examine its potential impact on consumer behavior. This research uses discourse analysis to understand the consumer category and consumer behaviors of new affuluent. There are two findings in this research. First, although recent researches try understanding affuluent by objective amount of assets, we claim that it is necessary to examine them by what they actually consume. Second, on the contrary to Trickle Down Theory which argues that people in lower social class imitate consumer styles of those in higher social class, present research finds that new affluent practice consumer behavior referring subjective image of affluent they have in mind.
Keywords: old rich, new rich, affluent, trickle down, theory, hyperreality
Gaps and Differences of Global Management in Japanese Multinational Corporations (pp29-43)
Masato INOUE (Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, Shiga University)
The purpose of this paper is to clarify gap factors and difference factors of global brand management in Japanese consumer durable goods multinational corporations by interview research. It is based on "the organization and system approach", and not "the consumer behavior approach" that is generally applied as an analytical approach. The contents of global brand management include four phases. A phase is not a level, so cannot be explained only through a gap factor, but a difference factor also needs to be considered. Many companies specialize in the first phase "branding" and the second phase "communication management". Some companies perform the third phase "consistency management of marketing policies in individual global brand". However, this paper examines the fourth phase based mainly on examples of Matsushita Electric Industrial and Nissan Motor that practice "consistency management of marketing policies among numerous global brands".
Keywords: global brand management, organization and system approach, brand management organization, consistency management of marketing policies, gaps and difference
Revisiting the Possibility of "Vision" in Transcultural Management (pp44-52)
Hirokazu TANAKA (Planning Supervisor/Chief Consultant, Integrated Marketing Communication Planning Center, Dentsu Inc.)
Management vision or brand vision is in general described by words. Etiologically speaking, however, vision is supposed to be equipped with rich visual power. It is all the more so in transcultural management where it is expected to go beyond diverse cultures. In view of Jacques Lacan's trilogy and Shinichi Nakazawa's Trinity model, decision making of top management can be converted to vision and imagination and it can further be extended to the development process of management ideology as a whole. Also in symbolizing vision, due heed needs to be paid to cultural differences. Art initiated management, the author believes, could be another promising approach of transcultural management.
Keywords: Visualizing management (brand) vision, trinity model, symbolization of vision, going beyond cultural differences, art initiated management
Companies in a Culturally Different Context and their Local Stakeholders - A Case Study of Japanese Multinationals in France- (pp53-62)
Toshikazu TAKAHASHI (Ph.d. Candidate in Business Administration, Rikkyo University)
This paper examines the cultural influence of the decisions made by the headquaters of multinational corporations on the relationship between their foreign subsidiaries and their local stakeholders in a culturally different context by analyzing the pattern of their subsidiaries' management on the relationship with their local stakeholders. Participants were the foreign subsidiaries of Japanese multinational companies in France, and semi-structured interviews were used. The interviews showed that the cultural background of subsidiaries' customers might have an impact on the other local stakeholders, and that the relationship between foreign subsidiaries and their local stakeholders might be defined by the relationship between HQ and its foreign subsidiary.
Keywords: multinational company, foreign subsidiary, local stakeholder, decision making, unintended ethnocentricism
Strategic Management of Building Trust in Workplace - International Comparative Study of Leader Member Exchange- (pp63-76)
Ken SAKUMA (Research Fellow, Chuo University)
This study will clarify based on the Leader Member Exchange theory how the workplace should be managed in order to meet such requirements the employees have as information sharing as well as career establishment.
Keywords: win/win solution, leader member exchange, information sharing, mutual gain, social exchange in work place
Cross-Cultural Adjustment for Japanese Overseas Expatriates and Global Competency (pp77-94)
Hirohisa NAGAI (Professor, Graduate School of Business Sciences, University of Tsukuba)
This paper deals with Japanese overseas expatriate's sound and productive overseas assignment from perspective of hygiene and motivation factors adapted from Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. It is hypothesized that cross-cultural Adjustment which will control hygiene factor combined with global leadership competency that will control motivation factor of expatriate's overseas working life will boost the level of success in overseas mission. Research findings from empirical surveys amplify the aforementioned hypothesis. Regards to cross-cultural adjustment, Management of two mental maps based on which one's training program to promote adjustment level was discussed. On the other hand, contingency between expatriate's global competency profile and organizational environment was suggested as one of key success factors for expatriate management.
Keywords: Japanese overseas expatriate, two-factor theory of motivation, global leadership competency, mental map
What Do Japanese Workers Want to Know about Intercultural Communication? - An Analysis of Nikkei vs. Gaishi-kei Kigyo Employees- (pp95-104)
Nicole M. WATANABE (Lecturer, Musashi Institute of Technology)
Satoshi P. WATANABE (Associate Professor, University of Tsukuba)
Globalization in various regional economic markets has significantly increased the opportunities for cross-cultural contact among workers around the world, and particularly in Japan. This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the particular areas of interest for Japanese working in such environments. What issues are most salient and most difficult for these workers? What topics of discussion in training seminars are most helpful? Are these seminars responding to the needs of Japanese workers? What are the differences, if any, in the needs and interests of workers in Nikkei Kigyo and Gaishi-kei Kigyo Though the results of this study are preliminary, they provide interesting findings on the usefulness of cross-cultural communication and the possible implications for future workers in Japan's electronics industry. The results provide several insights into the needs and interests of participants in cross-cultural training.
Keywords: cross-cultural communication, corporate training, Japanese corporations, foreign multinational corporations
Pathways Found in Pursuit of a GHRD Methodology Originated from Japan - Lessons from a Ten Years' Attempt for GHRD by a Japanese Corporation- (pp105-119)
Toyohiro MATSUDA (Global Human Network, Co. Ltd., Director & General Manager)
Mitsubishi Corporation has tried a variety of HR measures for globalization ever since it established the International Human Resources Office in 1994. After a series of trials and errors, GHRD approaches have been cultivated based on the ten year experience. At the re-starting stage for the full-fledged implementation of new GHRD measures, the author believes it is necessary to seek lessons for inter-company KM, as well as for future action plans.
Keywords: Global HRD methodology originated from Japan, dichotomy between RS and NS, a new global GCD Paradigm, right person for right position at right timing and right training for right person at right timing, HR portfolio strategy in alignment with biz & operational strategy
A Study on die entstehung (the Origin) der Betriebswirtechaftslehre - from the Perspective of the History of Science (pp120-141)
Koji OHIRA (Professor of Business Administration, Meiji Gakuin University)
This paper is intended to investigate die entstehung (the Origin) der Betriebswirtechaftslehre (BWL). Based on the external approach in the history of science, the author could define that die entstehung (the Origin) der BWL was in the 1920's around the time of the second methodological controversy.
Keywords: history of management theories, Betriebswirtechaftslehre, history of science, external approach, science and institution