Journal Name: Asian Business & Management: June 2008, Volume 7, Number 2
Mega-Sporting Events in Asia - Impacts on Society, Business and Management: An Introduction (pp147–162)
Harald Dolles (School of Management, heilbronn business school, Bahnhofstrae 1, Heilbronn 74072, Germany) and Sten Söderman (School of Business, Stockholm University, Stockholm SE 106 91, Sweden)
Mega-sporting events today are central stages that not only feature professional athletes representing their country in competing for excellence, but also provide host nations with a universally legitimate way to present and promote their national identities and cultures on a global scale. This introduction to the special issue of Asian Business & Management on 'Mega-sporting events in Asia' suggests insights into the emerging field of research related to mega-events and sport and summarizes the history of mega-sporting events in Asia, linking the topic to the growing importance of sports and the interest shown by national governments and cities in staging sporting events in Asia. It also offers a general framework for understanding a range of conceptual and methodological issues related to defining and measuring the impact of mega-sporting events, indicating potential directions for further research.
Keywords: olympic games, FIFA world cup, mega-sporting events, impact analysis, Asia
Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy (pp163–179)
Tommy D Andersson, John Armbrecht and Erik Lundberg (School of Business, Economics and Law, Goteborg University, Vasagatan 1, P.O. Box 610, Gothenburg SE-405 30, Sweden)
Much academic effort has been invested in the development of methods and models that measure economic impacts from mega-events, so that academic knowledge in this area is quite coherent and well established. There are three different types of analysis that address the issue: input–output analysis, cost-benefit analysis and computable-general-equilibrium analysis. In this article, academic knowledge about these three major approaches to economic impact analysis of mega-events is presented. All three have their advantages and disadvantages, as will be discussed. A framework of analysis, synthesizing the three approaches, is also suggested, before concluding remarks regarding the economic impact of mega-events are made, based on empirical studies from a number of mega-events.
Keywords: mega-events, economic impact analysis, input–output analysis (IOA), computable-general-equilibrium (CGE), cost–benefit analysis (CBA)
Conditions for Hosting Mega-Sporting Events in Asia: Comparing Japan and India (pp181–200)
C Lakshman (Tata Management Training Centre, 1, Mangaldas Road, Opp. Metro House, Pune 411 048, India)
This study examines the impact of mega-sporting events on business and economic growth by using Porter's competitive advantage diamond framework. Specifically, it comparatively analyses the differential impacts of mega-sporting events in two countries, viz. Japan and India - the main hosts, respectively, of the FIFA World Cup 2002 and the ICC Cricket World Cup 1996. The analysis led to the expectation that there are significant differences in the nature and direction of the impact such mega-sporting events have on the society and economy of these two nations. This qualitative analysis led to the formulation of a proposition anticipating differences in ex ante vs ex post impact between the two countries. The differential impacts of mega-sporting events on social and economic development, growth and infrastructure are explored. The study extends the comparison of these two nations and seeks to generalize the differences across developed vs emerging markets of Asia. Based on emerging markets literature, managerial implications are developed from the perspectives of the different 'players' in question in the respective markets.
Keywords: FIFA World Cup, ICC Cricket World Cup, cricket, football, Japan, India
The 'Benefits' of Hosting: Japanese Experiences from the 2002 Football World Cup (pp201–224)
Wolfram Manzenreiter (Department of East Asian Studies, University of Vienna, Campus AAKH, Spitalgasse 2–4, 1090 Wien, Austria)
Sports mega-events have considerable significance in re-imaging strategies of urban growth in highly developed economies. This inquiry into the relationship of the 2002 Football World Cup, public policy and regional development in Japan has been prompted by theoretical considerations on the changing background of regional politics in the 1990s and empirical observations of current trends in sports politics and professional sports. The introductory discussion of losers and winners in the World Cup reflects on the basic question of why regional authorities invest in sports promotion. A theoretical section sums up academic discussions on hosting politics, while an empirical section provides data on the anticipated and actual effects in Japan. The findings imply that local governments placed different hopes and expectations on the tournament, depending on the environment and conditions surrounding the host authorities. Regions with more soft assets tended to attach less value to the event, since they envisioned less need to enhance regional image. The comparison of survey data with macro-economic figures does not establish a direct relation between the degree of involvement of regional authorities and economic performance, but demonstrates that in mature economies the business of mega-events has no or, at best, a negligible effect.
Keywords: sports mega-events, FIFA world cup, football (soccer), Japan, economic impact analysis
Venturing Beyond the Marathon: The Entrepreneurship of Ultrarunning and the IAU World Cup in Korea (pp225–241)
Siri Terjesen (Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298530, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA)
This article describes the entrepreneurial development and professionalism of ultradistance running (ultrarunning) in South Korea, culminating with the hosting of the International Association of Ultrarunning World Cup 100km in 2006. This case-study-based research provides evidence of various macro-environmental and individual drivers of a grassroots entrepreneurial process, contextualized in Korea's sporting culture. Macro-environmental factors include the economic crisis and Korean cultural values of camaraderie, emotional expressiveness and entrepreneurial spirit. At the individual level, self-leadership, focus, persistence, team dynamics and access to resources explain the growth of ultrarunning and the commitment to hosting the IAU World Cup. Implications for sports entrepreneurship and grassroots-initiated mega-sporting events in Asia are discussed.
Keywords: athletics, entrepreneurship, Korea, mega-sporting events, self-leadership, ultrarunning
Ambush Marketing in China: Counterbalancing Olympic Sponsorship Efforts (pp243–263)
Holger Preuss (Institute of Sport Science, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Saarstrae 21, Mainz 55099, Germany), Kai Gemeinder (Institute of Sport Science, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Saarstrae 21, Mainz 55099, Germany) and Benoit Séguin (School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada)
This paper provides an empirical insight into the perception and use of ambush marketing on the People's Republic of China public television network CCTV5 (the official Olympic broadcaster), by examining the commercials used by various corporations during its coverage of the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. A five-point categorization is presented to distinguish between various methods of ambushing. Despite the efforts of the Beijing government to fight ambush marketing ahead of its Olympic Games in 2008, the results demonstrate that concerns about the practice of ambush marketing in China must be taken seriously. An analysis of 40 commercial spots was carried out, based on China's 2002 Olympic Symbol Protection Law, as well as a comparison of ambush marketing on Chinese CCTV5 with nine other nations. This paper concludes with some theoretical considerations concerning general protection of Olympic sponsors and reflects on particular cultural backgrounds in China that may relate to ambush marketing.
Keywords: ambush marketing, 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, China, sponsorship in China, Olympic brand protection, ambush marketing legislation
(This journal is available online: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/abm)
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